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Cardiac causes of blackouts

Blackouts or fainting, are known in medical jargon as syncope. It is a transient loss of consciousness resulting from decreased blood flow to the brain. While various factors can cause a blackout, heart-related issues need to be considered. Understanding the heart origins of syncope involves considering conditions such as arrhythmias, structural heart diseases, and vasovagal syncope.

Arrhythmias , abnormal heart beats, are a leading cardiac cause of syncope. Conditions like slow heart beat (bradycardia) or fast heart beat (tachycardia), particularly if they result in significant changes in blood flow, can lead to syncope. Abnormal heart beats are described in more details in the `arrhythmia section`.

Another condition, which can result in a transient loss of consciousness is called, vasovagal syncope. Vasovagal blackout involves a sudden drop in heart rate and blood pressure due to a reflex response often triggered by external factors such as hot environment, prolonged standing or pain. This reflex results in temporary loss of consciousness as blood flow to the brain decreases. Diagnostic tools such as an electrocardiogram(ECG) and Holter monitoring play a crucial role in identifying arrhythmias as underlying causes of syncope.

Structural heart diseases, including conditions like hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and heart valve disorders , can also cause syncope. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a pathological thickening of the heart muscle, which can impact the heart’s ability to pump blood effectively, causing a blackout. Similarly, heart valve disorders, such as aortic stenosis, can impair heart`s forward`s flow, resulting in syncope due to decreased blood flow to the brain. Above are often diagnosed on auscultation as they cause <heart murmurs . Diagnosis of structural heart diseases often involves echocardiography and other imaging modalities, such as cardiac MRI to assess cardiac structure and function.

In addition to the above, other heart issues can cause transient loss of consciousness, such as pulmonary embolism (PE) or aortic dissection. Pulmonary embolism is a condition, which causes blockage of arteries in the lungs by blood clots and aortic dissection is a life-threatening condition involving a tear in the aorta’s inner lining.

To conclude, a comprehensive evaluation, including detailed medical history, physical examination, and appropriate cardiac investigations such as ECG, echocardiography, and Holter monitoring are essential in identifying and managing cardiac causes of blackouts.

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